Is this child support fraud?

I’m just gonna get straight to the point and keep it as short as possible. In a nutshell, a woman has full custody of her children and is supposed to be getting child support from the non-existant father (which she never gets). When she filed her taxes, they took money out of her taxes for back child support they said she owed him, which means he opened a child support case on his children that he has no custodial rights to. Is that considered fraud? and would be the best way of going about it (california resident).

This is happening to a friend of mine, but when we were discussing it sparked my curiosity cause it seems crazy. thank you in advance for any responses

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